INVESTIGATION OF THE FORMATION PROCESS OF HAZARDOUS AND HARMFUL PRODUCTION FACTORS WHEN CUTTING A STONE FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKS

Alla Bezpalova, Vladimir Lebedev

Abstract


Stone cutting for construction work is carried out by disk diamond wheels the rotation speed of which, and, consequently, the cutting speed is 35-50 m/s. In view of the high intensity of the cutting process and intensive microchip formation, the process of stone cutting is accompanied by considerable dust formation, which can be both harmful and dangerous in the work.

The greatest danger is represented by dust particles, which dimensions are 5 μm or less. These particles have the greatest pathogenic effect on the respiratory system of the human body. In addition, the settling time of these particles is measured in hours. Thus, even after the termination of work, the risk of dust exposure to the human body remains. Insignificant time of inhalation of these particles can lead a person to disability and death. Insurance payments in case of disability and compensation in case of death of an employee for these reasons all over the world amount to multibillion sums, which, even for this reason, makes the issue of combating this phenomenon very urgent.

In this paper, the process of generation of hazardous and harmful production factors arising as a result of dust formation during the stone cutting, the regularity of dust distribution by fractions, quantitative indicators of the process for improving equipment, as well as individual and collective means of personnel protection are determined. The shape and dimensions of the cutting grains of the cutting discs are studied in the paper, depending on the grain material and the grain size of the cutting disc. Thecurvature radii of the cutting grains depend on the grain material and the grain size of the cutting disc. The actual number of grains participating in cutting and, consequently, in dust formation is shown.

The dimensions of the dust particles depend on the graininess of the cutting discs and the processing regimes. Using the law of normal particle size distribution, the percentage of dust particles is determined depending on processing conditions. The rate of particle settling depends on their size and mass. The formation of a dust-air mixture and its probable concentration and chemical composition of dust depend on the chemical composition of the cutting materials.

Regularities are obtained, which can give an opportunity to improve the individual and collective protection of workers from this harmful production factor.


Keywords


cutting circle; grain size; cutting speed; microscrew size; dust; dust concentration

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2017.00416

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ISSN 2461-4262 (Online), ISSN 2461-4254 (Print)