RESEARCH ON USE OF LOW CONCENTRATION INVERSE SOLUBILITY POLYMERS IN WATER FOR HARDENING MACHINE COMPONENTS AND TOOLS

Nikolai Kobasko, Anatolii Moskalenko, Volodymyr Dobryvechir

Abstract


There is an optimal water concentration of inverse solubility polymers ( 1 %) where in many cases film boiling is absent. Based on accurate experimental data of French and data of authors, it was shown that during quenching from 875 oC in cold water solutions of optimal concentration film boiling is completely absent for those steel parts initial heat flux densities of which are below critical value. It is established that initial heat flux density decreases with increase sizes of tested samples. Initial process of quenching (formation of boundary boiling layer), which makes further history of cooling, is not investigated deeply and widely yet enough. When film boiling is absent, mathematical model includes only transient nucleate boiling process and convection. In this case, cooling time within the transient nucleate boiling process can be calculated using average effective Kondratjev numbers Kn. They were evaluated for inverse solubility polymers depending on their concentration and sizes of tested samples.  As a result, an improved technology of hardening large gears and bearing rings is proposed by authors. Its essence consists in interruption of accelerated cooling or turning off agitation of quenchant when dissolving of surface polymeric layer starts. Examples of performing improved technology are provided by authors. Developments can be used by engineers to switch from carburized large gears quenched in oil to gears made of optimal hardenability steel and quenched in water solutions of optimal concentration.


Keywords


polymers of inverse solubility; optimal concentration; initial heat flux; boiling process; effective Kn numbers; recipes; large gears; improved technology

Full Text:

PDF

References


Kobasko, N. (2017). Cooling intensity of inverse solubility polyalkylene glykol polymers and some results of investigations focused on minimizing distortion of metal components. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, 2, 55–62. doi: 10.21303/2461-4262.2017.00294

Kobasko, N. I., Moskalenko, A. A. (1996). Intensification the methods of quenching by means of use water polymer solutions. Promyshlennaya Teplotekhnika, 18 (6), 55–60.

Moskalenko, A. A., Kobasko, N. I., Tolmacheva, O. V., Totten, G. E., Webster, G. M. (1996). Quechants Characterization by Acoustical Noise Analysis of Cooling Properties of Aqueous Poly (Alkylene Glycol) Polymer Quenchants. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Quenching and Control of the Distortion. Cleveland: Cleveland Marriott Society Center, 117–122.

Tolubinsky, V. I. (1980). Teploobmen pri kipenii [Heat transfer at boiling]. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 320.

Kutateladze, S. S. (1963). Fundamentals of Heat Transfer. New York: Academic Press, 485.

Kutateladze, S. S. (1950). Hydrodynamic Crisis Model of Heat Transfer in Boiling Liquid at Free Convection. Journal of Engineering Physics, 20 (11), 1389–1392.

French, H. J. (1930). The Quenching of Steels. Cleveland: American Society for Steel Treating, 177.

Kobasko, N. I., Dobryvechir, V. V. (2010). Inverse Problems in Quench Process Design. Intensive Quenching Systems: Engineering and Design. West Conshohocken: ASTM International USA, 210–229.

Tikhonov, A. N., Glasko, V. B. (1967). On the Issue of Methods of Determination of the Part’s Surface Temperature. Journal of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, 7 (4), 910–914.

Alifanov, O. M. (1975). Outer Inverse Heat Conduction Problems. Eng. Phys. Jour., 29 (1), 13–25.

Beck, J. V., Osman, A. M. (1992). Analysis of Quenching and Heat Treating Processes Using Inverse Heat Transfer Method. Proceedings of Quenching and Distortion Control Conference. Chicago: ASM International, 147–154.

Lykov, A. V. (1967). Teoriya Teploprovodnosti [Theory of Heat Conductivity]. Moscow: Vyschaya Shkola, 596.

Kobasko, N. I., Aronov, M. A., Powell, J. A., Totten, G. E. (2010). Intensive Quenching Systems: Engineering and Design. West Conshohocken, ASTM International, 234. doi: 10.1520/mnl64-eb

Guseynov, Sh. E., Buikis, A., Kobasko, N. I. (2006). Mathematical statement of a problem with the hyperbolic heat transfer equation for the intensive steel quenching processes and its analytical solution. Equipment and Technologies for Heat Treatment of Metals and Alloys (OTTOM-7). Kharkov, 2, 22–27.

Kobasko, N. I. (2009). Transient Nucleate Boiling as a Law of Nature and a Basis for Designing of IQ Technologies. Proc. of the 7th IASME/WSEAS International Conference on Heat Transfer, Thermal Engineering and Environment (HTE’09). Moscow, 67–76.

Kondratev, G. M. (1957). Teplovye Izmereniya [Thermal Measurements]. Moscow: Mashgiz, 245.

Liscic, B., Tensi, H. M., Luty, W. (Eds.) (1992). Theory and Technology of Quenching. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 484. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-01596-4

Liscic, B., Tensi, H., Canale, L., Totten, G. (Eds.) (2010). Quenching Theory and Technology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 725. doi: 10.1201/9781420009163

Dossett, J. I., Totten, G. E. (Eds.) (2013). ASM Handbook. Vol. 4A: Steel Heat Treating Fundamentals and Processes. ASM International, 784.

Totten, G. E., Bates, C. E., Clinton, M. A. (1993). Handbook of Quenchants and Quenching Technology. Ohio: ASM International, Materials Park, 507.

Totten, G., Howes, M., Inouer, T. (Eds.) (2002). Handbook of Residual Stress and Deformation of Steel. Ohio: ASM International, Materials Park, 499.

How do Wind Turbines Work. A New Era for Wind Power in the United States. Wind Energy Technologies Office. Available at: https://www.energy.gov/eere/wind/how-do-wind-turbines-work

Kobasko, N. I. (2017). Pat. 114174 UA. Alloyed Low Hardenability Steel and Method of its Designing. МPK C22C 38/40, C22C 38/12, C21D 1/18, C22C 38/24, C22C 38/08, C22C 38/46, C21D 9/00. No. a 2013 11311; declareted: 23.09.2013; published: 10.05.2017, Bul. No. 9.

Liscic, B. (2003). Critical Heat-Flux Densities, Quenching Intensity and Heat Extraction Dynamics During Quenching in Vaporizable Liquids. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Quenching and the Control of Distortion. Beijing, 21–28.

Buikis, A. (2009). Some new models and their solutions for intensive steel quenching. Daugavpils, 27–30.

Buikis, A., Buike, M., Vilums, R. (2017). Several Intensive Steel Quenching and Wave Power Models. WSEAS transactions on heat and mass transfer, 12, 107–121.

Hermann, S., Holm, A.-P. (2009). Protecting Gears in Wind Power Applications. Available at: http://gearsolutions.com/article/detail/5882/protecting-gears-in-wind-power-applications




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2018.00582

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Nikolai Kobasko, Anatolii Moskalenko, Volodymyr Dobryvechir

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2461-4262 (Online), ISSN 2461-4254 (Print)