Kateryna Vasiutynska


The main aim of the study is to separate a new category of ecological services for providing human and environmental safety under conditions of accelerated urbanization in the system of eco-services.

Urbanization decreased the potential of ecological services and the set of provided functions at the expanse of absorbing essential territories of natural ecosystems and disturbing the ecological balance of the environment. The urbogenic environment that men made and natural dangerous phenomena intensify synergetically in models the new level of threats for both a human and all biotic and abiotic components. 

There was offered to separate an integral safety service as a new type of eco-services, based on the principle of providing human safety through environmental one. It was demonstrated, that safety services will improve other categories of ecological services, widen the assortment, diversity and mutual dependence of functions.  

There was presented the succession of steps for identifying and assessing safety services. Indicators and possible types of giving safe and high-quality drinking water to the population were given.

The demand for safety services will grow with the development of urbanization processes. Separation and provision of services by functions of the human protection against natural and men made threats increases the total potential of eco-services.


ecological service; urboecosystem; safety; urban environment; natural capital; human life and health risk

Full Text:



Ukrayina u tsyfrakh (2016). Derzhavna sluzhba statystyky Ukrayiny. Kyiv, 240. Available at:

Ukrayina: Ohlyad urbanizatsiyi (2015). The World Bank. Washington DC, 218. Available at:

Li, Y., Li, Y., Zhou, Y., Shi, Y., Zhu, X. (2012). Investigation of a coupling model of coordination between urbanization and the environment. Journal of Environmental Management, 98, 127–133. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.12.025

Daily, G. (Ed.) (1997). Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems., Washington D.C.: Island Press, 392. Available at:

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being. Synthesis Report (2005). Washington D.C.: Island Press, 160. Available at:

de Groot, R. et. al. (2010). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Ecological and Economic Foundation. Cambridge: Earthscan, 40. Available at:

Maes, J., Teller, A., Erhard, M., Liquete, C., Braat, L. et. al. (2013). Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services. An Analytical Framework for Ecosystem Assessments under Action 5 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Discussion Paper. Luxembourg: European Union, 57. Available at:

Maes, J., Teller, A., Erhard, M., Murphy, P., Paracchini, M. L. et. al. (2014). Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services. Indicators for Ecosystem Assessments under Action 5 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. 2nd Report. Brussels: European Union, 80. Available at:

Diehl, K., Burkhard, B., Jacob, K. (2016). Should the ecosystem services concept be used in European Commission impact assessment? Ecological Indicators, 61, 6–17. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.07.013

Heink, U., Hauck, J., Jax, K., Sukopp, U. (2016). Requirements for the selection of ecosystem service indicators – The case of MAES indicators. Ecological Indicators, 61, 18–26. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.09.031

Reyers, B., Biggs, R., Cumming, G. S., Elmqvist, T., Hejnowicz, A. P., Polasky, S. (2013). Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social–ecological approach. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 11 (5), 268–273. doi: 10.1890/120144

Layke, C., Mapendembe, A., Brown, C., Walpole, M., Winn, J. (2012). Indicators from the global and sub-global Millennium Ecosystem Assessments: An analysis and next steps. Ecological Indicators, 17, 77–87. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.025

Schetke, S., Lee, H., Graf, W., Lautenbach, S. (2018). Application of the ecosystem service concept for climate protection in Germany. Ecosystem Services, 29, 294–305. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.12.017

Eigenbrod, F., Bell, V. A., Davies, H. N., Heinemeyer, A., Armsworth, P. R., Gaston, K. J. (2011). The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278 (1722), 3201–3208. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2754

Alcamo, J., van Vuuren, D., Ringler, C., Cramer, W., Masui, T., Alder, J., Schulze, K. (2005). Changes in nature’s balance sheet: model-based estimates of future worldwide ecosystem services. Ecology and Society, 10 (2). doi: 10.5751/es-01551-100219

Long, H., Liu, Y., Hou, X., Li, T., Li, Y. (2014). Effects of land use transitions due to rapid urbanization on ecosystem services: Implications for urban planning in the new developing area of China. Habitat International, 44, 536–544. doi: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.10.011

Su, S., Xiao, R., Jiang, Z., Zhang, Y. (2012). Characterizing landscape pattern and ecosystem service value changes for urbanization impacts at an eco-regional scale. Applied Geography, 34, 295–305. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.12.001

Bolund, P., Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecological Economics, 29 (2), 293–301. doi: 10.1016/s0921-8009(99)00013-0

Andersson, E., Barthel, S., Borgstrom, S., Colding, J., Elmqvist, T., Folke, C., Gren, A. (2014). Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services. AMBIO, 43 (4), 445–453. doi: 10.1007/s13280-014-0506-y

Pataki, D. E., Carreiro, M. M., Cherrier, J., Grulke, N. E., Jennings, V., Pincetl, S. et. al. (2011). Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9 (1), 27–36. doi: 10.1890/090220

Badiu, D. L., Ioja, C. I., Patroescu, M., Breuste, J., Artmann, M., Nita, M. R. et. al. (2016). Is urban green space per capita a valuable target to achieve cities’ sustainability goals? Romania as a case study. Ecological Indicators, 70, 53–66. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.05.044

Litvinova, A. A., Ignateva, M. N., Koroteev, G. D. (2016). The concept of ecosystem functions and services. Economics and Society, 3 (22). Available at:

Ecosystem services of terrestrial ecosystems in Russia: first steps (2013). Status Quo Report. Moscow: Wildlife Conservation Center, 45. Available at:

Sotnik, I. N., Mohilenets, T. V. (2011). Analyz podkhodov k ekonomycheskoi otsenke ekosystemnykh usluh. Mekhanizm rehuliuvannia ekonomiky, 2, 152–158. Available at:

Soloviy, I. (2016). Evaluation of forest ecosystem services provided by forests of Ukraine and proposals on PES mechanisms. Enpi East Fleg II, 92. Available at:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Kateryna Vasiutynska

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2504-5695 (Online), ISSN 2504-5687 (Print)