FERMENTATION OF MULTIGRAIN DOUGH – AN APPROACH TO REDUCE GLYCEMIC INDEX FOR HEALTHY BREAD

Sunita Singh, Shruti Sethi, Sangeeta Gupta, Charanjit Kaur, Ed Wood

Abstract


The use of sourdough as the starter culture for bread making is one of the oldest processes in food fermentation and is very much prevalent in being used for the manufacture of various multigrain breads. The fermentation process of breads from mixed flours is one way, reported to reduce the glycemic index as compared to white bread. In this paper, we have discussed the use of (autochthonous) native culture vs pure culture use, in fermentation to prepare a starter culture sourdough by propagative fermentation. Since such a dough is incorporated in the sourdough bread making process (1:3), by the initial process of intermittent back-slopping (at intervals of 3.5 and 7 days) to propagate sourdough with a starter culture, as a part of the process, we observed the reduction in glycaemic index of the sourdough itself to as low as GI=40, at 3rd day of fermentation when the pure consortium and at 5th day of fermentation GI=43, when the native consortium was used. The sourdough process is thus an essential tool, aimed to make healthy breads, as it is incorporated as an ingredient in the process, to make sourdough bread.


Keywords


Sourdough; multigrain bread; acidity; glycaemic index; hydrolysis index; starter culture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Whitney, E. N., Rolfes, S. R. (2002). Understanding Nutrition. Wadsworth, 920.

Ludwig, D. S. (2000). Dietary Glycemic Index and Obesity. The Journal of Nutrition, 130 (2), 280S–283S. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.2.280s

Liu, S., Willett, W. C., Stampfer, M. J., Hu, F. B., Franz, M., Sampson, L. et. al. (2000). A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (6), 1455–1461. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1455

Foster-Powell, K., Holt, S. H., Brand-Miller, J. C. (2002). International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76 (1), 5–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/76.1.5

Rondini, E. A., Bernink, M. R. (2007). Ontario White Bean Producers. Nutrition and health. Available at: http://ontariobeans.on.ca/

Minervini, F., Di Cagno, R., Lattanzi, A., De Angelis, M., Antonielli, L., Cardinali, G. et. al. (2011). Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas of 19 Sourdoughs Used for Traditional/Typical Italian Breads: Interactions between Ingredients and Microbial Species Diversity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 (4), 1251–1264. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.07721-11

Khetrapal, S. P. (2018). How healthy food systems can reduce noncommunicable diseases: India and neighbours are acting, but more must be done. Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/blogs/toi-edit-page/how-healthy-food-systems-can-reduce-noncommunicable-diseases-india-and-neighbours-are-acting-but-more-must-be-done/

Director-General's Office. WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/dg/regional_directors/poonam-khetrapal-singh/en/

Arendt, E. K., Moroni, A., Zannini, E. (2011). Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread. Microbial Cell Factories, 10, S15. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-10-s1-s15

De Vuyst, L., Vrancken, G., Ravyts, F., Rimaux, T., Weckx, S. (2009). Biodiversity, ecological determinants, and metabolic exploitation of sourdough microbiota. Food Microbiology, 26 (7), 666–675. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2009.07.012

Gobbetti, M. (1998). Interactions between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sourdoughs. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 9, 267–274.

Gänzle, G. G., Ehmann, M., Hammes, W. P. (1998). Modeling of Growth of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Candida milleri in Response to Process Parameters of Sourdough Fermentation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64 (7), 2616–2623.

The home of great sourdough-everything you need to bake your own amazing sourdough. Available at: https://foodbodsourdough.com/

Sprouted Vollkornbrot With Seeds. Available at: https://www.abreaducation.com/blog/2012/08/sprouted-vollkornbrot

Wood, E., Wood, J. (2011). Classic Sourdoughs. Ten Speed Press, 38–39.

Pyler, E. J., Gorton, L. (2016). Pyler says: The story of San Francisco sourdough. Available at: https://www.bakingbusiness.com/articles/44795-pyler-says-the-story-of-san-francisco-sourdough

Development of Multigrain Bread Having Low GI Using Sourdough Technology. In IARI Annual Report (2014-2015). Available at: https://www.iari.res.in/files/Publication/annual_report/Annual-Report_2014-15.pdf

Thiele, C., Gänzle, M. G., Vogel, R. F. (2002). Contribution of Sourdough Lactobacilli, Yeast, and Cereal Enzymes to the Generation of Amino Acids in Dough Relevant for Bread Flavor. Cereal Chemistry Journal, 79 (1), 45–51. doi: https://doi.org/10.1094/cchem.2002.79.1.45

Kline, L., Sugihara, T. F. (1971). Microorganisms of the San Francisco Sour Dough Bread Process. II. Isolation and Characterization of undescribed bacterial species responsible for the souring activity. Applied Microbiology, 21 (3), 459–465.

Kline, S., Sugihara, T. F., McCready, L. B. (1970). Nature of the San Francisco sour dough French bread process. I. Mechanics of the process. Bakers Digest, 44 (2), 48.

Kaur, C. (2014). Project Annual Report 2014. Development of phenolic enriched multigrain bread with improved functional quality. A Ministry of Food Processing Industries funded MOFPI Project No SERB/MOFPI/006/2013.

Siepmann, F. B., Ripari, V., Waszczynskyj, N., Spier, M. R. (2017). Overview of Sourdough Technology: from Production to Marketing. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 11 (2), 242–270. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-017-1968-2

Ottogalli, G., Galli, A., Foschino, R. (1996). Italian bakery products obtained with sourdough: Characterization of the typical microflora. Advances in Food Sciences, 18 (5/6), 131–144.

Lland Patrick, O. A. M., Bruer, N., Edwards, G., Caloghiris, S., Eric, W. (2013). Chemical Analysis of Grapes and Wine: Techniques and Concepts 2nd Edition. Patrick Iland Wine Promotions Pty Ltd., 114.

Miller, G. L. (1959). Use of Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent for Determination of Reducing Sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31 (3), 426–428. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60147a030

Turula, V. E., Gore, T., Singh, S., Arumugham, R. G. (2010). Automation of the Anthrone Assay for Carbohydrate Concentration Determinations. Analytical Chemistry, 82 (5), 1786–1792. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac902664x

Wolter, A., Hager, A.-S., Zannini, E., Arendt, E. K. (2013). In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycaemic indexes of buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum, teff and commercial gluten-free bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 58 (3), 431–436. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.09.003

Brennan, C. S., Tudorica, C. M. (2008). Evaluation of potential mechanisms by which dietary fibre additions reduce the predicted glycaemic index of fresh pastas. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 43 (12), 2151–2162. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01831.x

Collins, C. H., Lyne, P. M. (1964). Collins and Lyne’s Microbiological Methods. Butterworth-Heinemann Pub., 465.

De Man, J. C., Rogosa, M., Sharpe, M. E. (1960). A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 23 (1), 130–135. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1960.tb00188.x

Elkhalifa, A. E. O., Bernhardt, R., Bonomi, F., Iametti, S., Pagani, M. A., Zardi, M. (2005). Fermentation modifies protein/protein and protein/starch interactions in sorghum dough. European Food Research and Technology, 222 (5-6), 559–564. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-0124-9

Hart, M. R., Graham, R. P., Gee, M., Morgan, A. I. (1970). Bread from sorghum and barley flours. Journal of Food Science, 35 (5), 661–665. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1970.tb04837.x

Gül, H., Özçelik, S., Sağdıç, O., Certel, M. (2005). Sourdough bread production with lactobacilli and S. cerevisiae isolated from sourdoughs. Process Biochemistry, 40 (2), 691–697. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2004.01.044

Sugihara, T. F., Leo, K., Miller, M. W. (1971). Microorganisms of the San Francisco Sour Dough Bread Process I. Yeasts Responsible for the Leavening Action. Applied Microbiology, 21 (3), 456–458.

Rizzello, C. G., Calasso, M., Campanella, D., De Angelis, M., Gobbetti, M. (2014). Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 180, 78–87. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.04.005

Vrancken, G., De Vuyst, L., Van der Meulen, R., Huys, G., Vandamme, P., Daniel, H.-M. (2010). Yeast species composition differs between artisan bakery and spontaneous laboratory sourdoughs. FEMS Yeast Research, 10 (4), 471–481. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2010.00621.x

Weckx, S., Van der Meulen, R., Maes, D., Scheirlinck, I., Huys, G., Vandamme, P., De Vuyst, L. (2010). Lactic acid bacteria community dynamics and metabolite production of rye sourdough fermentations share characteristics of wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations. Food Microbiology, 27 (8), 1000–1008. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2010.06.005

Hansen, A., Hansen, B. (1996). Flavour of sourdough wheat bread crumb. Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und -Forschung, 202 (3), 244–249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01263548

Schulz, A. (1972). Der EinflussorganiscerSauren auf die Vergarungverschiedener Z. Getr Mehl Brot, 26, 129–33.

De Angelis, M. (2003). Phytase activity in sourdough lactic acid bacteria: purification and characterization of a phytase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis CB1. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 87 (3), 259–270. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(03)00072-2

John, R. P., G.S., A., Nampoothiri, K. M., Pandey, A. (2009). Direct lactic acid fermentation: Focus on simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid production. Biotechnology Advances, 27 (2), 145–152. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.10.004

Åkerberg, A., Liljeberg, H., Björck, I. (1998). Effects of Amylose/Amylopectin Ratio and Baking Conditions on Resistant Starch Formation and Glycaemic Indices. Journal of Cereal Science, 28 (1), 71–80. doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.1997.0173

Jansch, A., Korakli, M., Vogel, R. F., Ganzle, M. G. (2007). Glutathione Reductase from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DSM20451T: Contribution to Oxygen Tolerance and Thiol Exchange Reactions in Wheat Sourdoughs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73 (14), 4469–4476. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.02322-06

Brighenti, F., Benini, L., Del Rio, D., Casiraghi, C., Pellegrini, N., Scazzina, F. et. al. (2006). Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83 (4), 817–822. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/83.4.817

Charanjit, K., Singh, Sunita, Rudra Shalini, G., Shruti, S. (2015). Final Report of Project. Development of phenolic enriched multigrain bread with improved functional quality. A Ministry of Food Processing Industries funded Project No SERB/MOFPI/006/2013.

Gobbetti, M., Rizzello, C. G., Di Cagno, R., De Angelis, M. (2014). How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. Food Microbiology, 37, 30–40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2013.04.012

Lopez, H. W., Duclos, V., Coudray, C., Krespine, V., Feillet-Coudray, C., Messager, A. et. al. (2003). Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats. Nutrition, 19 (6), 524–530. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0899-9007(02)01079-1

Park, S., Kang, S., Jeong, D.-Y., Jeong, S.-Y., Park, J. J., Yun, H. S. (2015). Cyanidin and malvidin in aqueous extracts of black carrots fermented with Aspergillus oryzae prevent the impairment of energy, lipid and glucose metabolism in estrogen-deficient rats by AMPK activation. Genes & Nutrition, 10 (2). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12263-015-0455-5

Arendt, E. K., Ryan, L. A. M., Dal Bello, F. (2007). Impact of sourdough on the texture of bread. Food Microbiology, 24 (2), 165–174. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2006.07.011

Clarke, C. I., Schober, T. J., Arendt, E. K. (2002). Effect of Single Strain and Traditional Mixed Strain Starter Cultures on Rheological Properties of Wheat Dough and on Bread Quality. Cereal Chemistry Journal, 79 (5), 640–647. doi: https://doi.org/10.1094/cchem.2002.79.5.640

Corsetti, A., Gobbetti, M., De Marco, B., Balestrieri, F., Paoletti, F., Russi, L., Rossi, J. (2000). Combined Effect of Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria and Additives on Bread Firmness and Staling. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48 (7), 3044–3051. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990853e

Crowley, P., Schober, T., Clarke, C., Arendt, E. (2002). The effect of storage time on textural and crumb grain characteristics of sourdough wheat bread. European Food Research and Technology, 214 (6), 489–496. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-002-0500-7

Liljeberg, H., Bjorck, I. (1994). Bioavailability of starch in bread products. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy subjects and in vitro resistant starch conten. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48 (3), 151–163.

Liljeberg, H. G. M., Lonner, C. H., Bjorck, I. M. E. (1995). Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition, 125 (6), 1503–1511.

Corsetti, A., Gobbetti, M., Rossi, J., Damiani, P. (1998). Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria: identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 50 (2), 253–256. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530051285

Lavermicocca, P., Valerio, F., Evidente, A., Lazzaroni, S., Corsetti, A., Gobbetti, M. (2000). Purification and Characterization of Novel Antifungal Compounds from the Sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum Strain 21B. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66 (9), 4084–4090. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.9.4084-4090.2000

Lavermicocca, P., Valerio, F., Visconti, A. (2003). Antifungal Activity of Phenyllactic Acid against Molds Isolated from Bakery Products. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69 (1), 634–640. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.69.1.634-640.2003

Dal Bello, F., Clarke, C. I., Ryan, L. A. M., Ulmer, H., Schober, T. J., Ström, K. et. al. (2007). Improvement of the quality and shelf life of wheat bread by fermentation with the antifungal strain Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1.7. Journal of Cereal Science, 45 (3), 309–318. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2006.09.004

Bover-Cid, S., Holzapfel, W. H. (1999). Improved screening procedure for biogenic amine production by lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 53 (1), 33–41. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1605(99)00152-x

Sunita, S. (2019). Development of starter cultures for fermented functional and /or healthy vegetable and fruit drinks in Project: Development of Functional and Convenience Foods from Agri-horticultural Produce (No CRSCIARI2014023255201 7-18). IRC –I presentation (for official use only).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21303/2504-5695.2019.00994

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Sunita Singh, Shruti Sethi, Sangeeta Gupta, Charanjit Kaur, Ed Wood

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2504-5695 (Online), ISSN 2504-5687 (Print)