INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONAL DETERMINANTS ON THE FOOD CHOICES OF THE PORTUGUESE

Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana Cristina Ferrão, Paula Correia, Ana Paula Cardoso, Manuela Ferreira, João Duarte

Abstract


Food choices are influenced by many factors, such as emotional. When people eat, driven by emotional factors, they often lose control, which may lead to eating disorders. Therefore, this work aimed at studying the influence that emotional determinants had on people’s food choices. It was undertaken a descriptive cross-sectional study by means of a questionnaire on a non-probabilistic sample of 1314 participants. The data was collected among a sample of the Portuguese population and measured if people´s food choices were influenced by emotional determinants.
The results revealed that the participants’ food choices were, in general, slightly influenced by emotional determinants (mean scores between –0.5 and 0.5, on a scale from –2 to +2). There were found significant differences in all of the variables under study. The participants, who already experienced an episode of binge-eating, were the ones that obtained the highest mean score (0.63±0.79), meaning that in this case those participants’ food choices were influenced by emotional determinants. These results support the premise that emotional determinants are influenced by the characteristics of each individual and also the existence of a positive association between emotional eating and the presence of eating disorders, especially, binge-eating.

Keywords


Eating disorders; emotional determinants; emotional eating; food choices; individual characteristics; survey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Pelletier, L. G., Dion, S. C., Slovinec-D’Angelo, M., Reid, R. (2004). Why Do You Regulate What You Eat? Relationships Between Forms of Regulation, Eating Behaviors, Sustained Dietary Behavior Change, and Psychological Adjustment. Motivation and Emotion, 28 (3), 245–277. doi: http://doi.org/10.1023/b:moem.0000040154.40922.14

Lowe, M. R., Bocarsly, M. E., Parigi, A. D.; Harris, R. B. S., Mattes, R. D. (Eds.) (2008). Human eating motivation in times of plenty: biological, environmental and psychosocial influences. Appetite and Food Intake: Behavioral and Physiological Considerations. London: CRC Press, 376–394. doi: http://doi.org/10.1201/9781420047844.ch6

Maddock, S., Hill, B. (2016). “Bagels and doughnuts … round food for every mood” food advertising discourses. British Food Journal, 118 (2), 327–342. doi: http://doi.org/10.1108/bfj-04-2015-0136

Macht, M., Simons, G. (2000). Emotions and eating in everyday life. Appetite, 35 (1), 65–71. doi: http://doi.org/10.1006/appe.2000.0325

Macht, M. (2008). How emotions affect eating: A five-way model. Appetite, 50 (1), 1–11. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.07.002

Gardner, M. P., Wansink, B., Kim, J., Park, S.-B. (2014). Better moods for better eating?: How mood influences food choice. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24 (3), 320–335. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2014.01.002

Spence, C. (2017). Comfort food: A review. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 9, 105–109. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgfs.2017.07.001

Locher, J. L., Yoels, W. C., Maurer, D., van Ells, J. (2006). Comfort Foods: An Exploratory Journey Into The Social and Emotional Significance of Food. Food and Foodways, 13 (4), 273–297. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/07409710500334509

Arnow, B., Kenardy, J., Agras, W.S. (1995). The Emotional Eating Scale: the development of a measure to assess coping with negative affect by eating. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (1), 79–90. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/1098-108x(199507)18:1<79::aid-eat2260180109>3.0.co;2-v

Litwin, R., Goldbacher, E. M., Cardaciotto, L., Gambrel, L. E. (2016). Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance. Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22 (1), 97–104. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-016-0301-9

Nasirzadeh, Y., Kantarovich, K., Wnuk, S., Okrainec, A., Cassin, S. E., Hawa, R., Sockalingam, S. (2018). Binge Eating, Loss of Control over Eating, Emotional Eating, and Night Eating After Bariatric Surgery: Results from the Toronto Bari-PSYCH Cohort Study. Obesity Surgery, 28 (7), 2032–2039. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-018-3137-8

Ricca, V., Castellini, G., Fioravanti, G., Lo Sauro, C., Rotella, F., Ravaldi, C. et. al. (2012). Emotional eating in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 53 (3), 245–251. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.04.062

Annesi, J.J., Mareno, N., McEwen, K. (2016). Psychosocial predictors of emotional eating and their weight-loss treatment-induced changes in women with obesity. Eating and Weight Disorders, 21 (2), 289–295. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-015-0209-9

Greeno, C. G., Wing, R. R. (1994). Stress-induced eating. Psychological Bulletin, 115 (3), 444–464. doi: http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.444

Oliver, G., Wardle, J., Gibson, E. L. (2000). Stress and Food Choice: A Laboratory Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62 (6), 853–865. doi: http://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-200011000-00016

Aikman, S. N., Crites, S. L., Fabrigar, L. R. (2006). Beyond Affect and Cognition: Identification of the Informational Bases of Food Attitudes1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36 (2), 340–382. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00011.x

Jackson, B., Lynne Cooper, M., Mintz, L., Albino, A. (2003). Motivations to eat: Scale development and validation. Journal of Research in Personality, 37 (4), 297–318. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/s0092-6566(02)00574-3

Lindeman, M., Väänänen, M. (2000). Measurement of ethical food choice motives. Appetite, 34 (1), 55–59. doi: http://doi.org/10.1006/appe.1999.0293

Renner, B., Sproesser, G., Strohbach, S., Schupp, H. T. (2012). Why we eat what we eat. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS). Appetite, 59 (1), 117–128. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.04.004

Roininen, K., Lähteenmäki, L., Tuorila, H. (1999). Quantification of Consumer Attitudes to Health and Hedonic Characteristics of Foods. Appetite, 33 (1), 71–88. doi: http://doi.org/10.1006/appe.1999.0232

Steptoe, A., Pollard, T. M., Wardle, J. (1995). Development of a Measure of the Motives Underlying the Selection of Food: the Food Choice Questionnaire. Appetite, 25 (3), 267–284. doi: http://doi.org/10.1006/appe.1995.0061

van Strien, T., Frijters, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., Defares, P. B. (1986). The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5 (2), 295–315. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/1098-108x(198602)5:2<295::aid-eat2260050209>3.0.co;2-t

Witte, R., Witte, J. (2019). Statistics. New Jersey: Wiley, 1–576.

World health Organization: Global Database on Body Mass Index. Available at: https://www.who.int/nutrition/databases/bmi/en/

Forrester-Knauss, C., Zemp Stutz, E. (2012). Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter? BMC Public Health, 12 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-809

Kjelsås, E., Bjørnstrøm, C., Götestam, K. G. (2004). Prevalence of eating disorders in female and male adolescents (14–15 years). Eating Behaviors, 5 (1), 13–25. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/s1471-0153(03)00057-6

Slof-Op ‘t Landt, M. C. T., van Furth, E. F., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Bartels, M., Willemsen, G., de Geus, E. J. et. al. (2017). Prevalence of dieting and fear of weight gain across ages: a community sample from adolescents to the elderly. International Journal of Public Health, 62 (8), 911–919. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-017-0948-7

Liechty, J. M., Lee, M.-J. (2013). Longitudinal predictors of dieting and disordered eating among young adults in the U.S. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 46 (8), 790–800. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22174

Eneva, K. T., Murray, S., O’Garro-Moore, J., Yiu, A., Alloy, L. B., Avena, N. M., Chen, E. Y. (2017). Reward and punishment sensitivity and disordered eating behaviors in men and women. Journal of Eating Disorders, 5 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.1186/s40337-017-0138-2

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association, Washington.

Davis, F. B. (1964). Educational Measurements and Their Interpretation. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 422.

Duncan, A. E., Ziobrowski, H. N., Nicol, G. (2017). The Prevalence of Past 12-Month and Lifetime DSM-IV Eating Disorders by BMI Category in US Men and Women. European Eating Disorders Review, 25 (3), 165–171. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/erv.2503

Grucza, R. A., Przybeck, T. R., Cloninger, C. R. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder in a community sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48 (2), 124–131. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.08.002

Hudson, J. I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H. G., Kessler, R. C. (2007). The Prevalence and Correlates of Eating Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61 (3), 348–358. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.040

Etkin, R. G., Bowker, J. C., Scalco, M. D. (2016). Associations between subtypes of social withdrawal and emotional eating during emerging adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 239–244. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.059

Vesnaver, E., Keller, H. H., Sutherland, O., Maitland, S. B., Locher, J. L. (2015). Alone at the Table: Food Behavior and the Loss of Commensality in Widowhood: Table 1. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 71 (6), 1059–1069. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbv103

Ford, P. A., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Lee, J. W., Youngberg, W., Tonstad, S. (2013). Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74 (2), 142–148. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.11.002

Gilbert, J., Stubbs, R. J., Gale, C., Gilbert, P., Dunk, L., Thomson, L. (2014). A qualitative study of the understanding and use of “compassion focused coping strategies” in people who suffer from serious weight difficulties. Journal of Compassionate Health Care, 1 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-014-0009-5

Hardman, R. K., Berrett, M. E., Richards, P. S., Black, S. (2014). Using Experiential Group Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders. Eating Disorders, 23 (1), 89–97. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2014.940789

Kiefer, I., Rathmanner, T., Kunze, M. (2005). Eating and dieting differences in men and women. The Journal of Men’s Health & Gender, 2 (2), 194–201. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmhg.2005.04.010

Faber, A., Dubé, L., Knäuper, B. (2018). Attachment and eating: A meta-analytic review of the relevance of attachment for unhealthy and healthy eating behaviors in the general population. Appetite, 123, 410–438. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.10.043

Silverman, P.R. (2004). Widow to Widow: How the Bereaved Help One Another. New York: Brunner-Routledge, 282. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203020975

Schut, M. S., Henk. (1999). The dual process model of coping with bereavement: rationale and description. Death Studies, 23 (3), 197–224. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/074811899201046

Vesnaver, E., Keller, H. H., Sutherland, O., Maitland, S. B., Locher, J. L. (2015). Food behavior change in late-life widowhood: A two-stage process. Appetite, 95, 399–407. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2015.07.027

Quandt, S. A., McDonald, J., Arcury, T. A., Bell, R. A., Vitolins, M. Z. (2000). Nutritional self-management of elderly widows in rural communities. The Gerontologist, 40 (1), 86–96. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/geront/40.1.86

Jiang, Y., King, J. M., Prinyawiwatkul, W. (2014). A review of measurement and relationships between food, eating behavior and emotion. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 36 (1), 15–28. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.12.005

Porcherot, C., Delplanque, S., Raviot-Derrien, S., Calvé, B. L., Chrea, C., Gaudreau, N., Cayeux, I. (2010). How do you feel when you smell this? Optimization of a verbal measurement of odor-elicited emotions. Food Quality and Preference, 21 (8), 938–947. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2010.03.012

Krueger, A. B., Mueller, A. (2011). Job Search, Emotional Well-Being, and Job Finding in a Period of Mass Unemployment: Evidence from High-Frequency Longitudinal Data. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2011 (1), 1–57. doi: http://doi.org/10.1353/eca.2011.0001

Devonport, T. J., Nicholls, W., Fullerton, C. (2017). A systematic review of the association between emotions and eating behaviour in normal and overweight adult populations. Journal of Health Psychology, 24 (1), 3–24. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/1359105317697813

Dohle, S., Hartmann, C., Keller, C. (2014). Physical activity as a moderator of the association between emotional eating and BMI: Evidence from the Swiss Food Panel. Psychology & Health, 29 (9), 1062–1080. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2014.909042

Poínhos, R., Alves, D., Vieira, E., Pinhão, S., Oliveira, B. M. P. M., Correia, F. (2015). Eating behaviour among undergraduate students. Comparing nutrition students with other courses. Appetite, 84, 28–33. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.09.011

Frayn, M., Knäuper, B. (2017). Emotional Eating and Weight in Adults: a Review. Current Psychology, 37 (4), 924–933. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-017-9577-9

Leehr, E. J., Krohmer, K., Schag, K., Dresler, T., Zipfel, S., Giel, K. E. (2015). Emotion regulation model in binge eating disorder and obesity – a systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 49, 125–134. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.12.008

Péneau, S., Ménard, E., Méjean, C., Bellisle, F., Hercberg, S. (2013). Sex and dieting modify the association between emotional eating and weight status. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97 (6), 1307–1313. doi: http://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.054916

Braden, A., Musher-Eizenman, D., Watford, T., Emley, E. (2018). Eating when depressed, anxious, bored, or happy: Are emotional eating types associated with unique psychological and physical health correlates? Appetite, 125, 410–417. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.022

Pinaquy, S., Chabrol, H., Simon, C., Louvet, J.-P., Barbe, P. (2003). Emotional Eating, Alexithymia, and Binge-Eating Disorder in Obese Women. Obesity Research, 11 (2), 195–201. doi: http://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.31

Ricca, V., Castellini, G., Lo Sauro, C., Ravaldi, C., Lapi, F., Mannucci, E. et. al. (2009). Correlations between binge eating and emotional eating in a sample of overweight subjects. Appetite, 53 (3), 418–421. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.07.008

Sultson, H., Kukk, K., Akkermann, K. (2017). Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale. Appetite, 116, 423–430. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.035




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2019.00995



Copyright (c) 2019 Raquel P. F. Guiné, Ana Cristina Ferrão, Paula Correia, Ana Paula Cardoso, Manuela Ferreira, João Duarte

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2504-5571 (Online), ISSN 2504-5563 (Print)